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There are higher chances of orgasms when people can have a conversation about them, that happens when they know each other better.
The rise of the internet and social media getting involved in almost every aspect of our life has led to a level of connectivity where meeting more people and finding the right date has become simple. But this has also given rise to a hook up culture where a lot of young people are looking for casual encounters only for a night.
While the right time to have sex in a relationship has been discussed a lot with some going for it on the first date and others getting in action much later, it remains to be seen how pleasurable an encounter with someone you just met can be. A new study takes a look at it keeping the much talked about female orgasm in mind, and reveals that it’s not very helpful.
The survey found that only one in 10 women experience an orgasm during one night stands, while the orgasm gap was evident here as well with 64 percent men climaxing in the same situation. The study said that knowing one’s partner better increases the chances of an orgasm.
The findings suggested that while more men preferred one night stands when they were drunk, the influence of alcohol actually takes a toll on the chances of women getting an orgasm.
Above all having a conversation with the partner is important for an orgasm, and for that both need to have a comfort level where they can talk about what makes them feel better.
Female sexuality is a merchandise. This probably is at the root of human civilization. In modern culture, the item that is the merchandise is also the seller. Women sell themselves. Conflicts are preprogrammed.
More widely known as Butea Superba, the plant is of the vine family and grows primarily in Asia in countries such as Vietnam, India, china and Thailand. The plant is known by a variety of names throughout the world such as Butea Gum tree, Kwao Krua dang, Red Kwao Krua and Red Kwao krua Daeng. Also known as ‘flame of the forest’, the tree itself is a medium sized one that features compound leaves that fall during the winter and bloom between February and March. The parts used for medicinal properties include the gum extract, the seeds and the leaves.
The gum of the butea tree is rich in gallic and tannic acids. Galiic acid is considered to be one of the more effective forms of antioxidants that keep the body free of any free radicals that are known to play a significant role in the development of a number of medical conditions. Studies have shown that gallic acid also possesses a number of anti cancer properties and is being included in the treatment of a number of patients all over the world in order to prevent cellular mutations. The most important aspect of using gallic acid as a treatment option right now is the fact that it shows no negative effect on the healthy cells within the body while helping the body confronts the cancer cells that exist. Gallic acid also has anti fungal as well as anti viral properties which means that it helps protect the body against a number of common and very serious medical illnesses. Gallic acid can also be used as a remote astringent as it known to be extremely beneficial when it comes to tissue constriction as well as reduction in bleeding. Despite the fact that Butea superba is rich in gallic acid – which is very beneficial for a number of serious medical ailments, perhaps its most well known use is the fact that it is very effective in boosting an individual’s sexual performance as well as helping cure certain issues like erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. This is primarily because of the fact that there is some evidence to suggest that the chemicals that are present in butea superba are known to act similarly to the hormones that help in the regulation of sexual performance and function.
Butea Superba is widely used in a number of home remedies that have been developed centuries ago and perfected over long durations of time. The leaves, for instance, are known to be very effective in the reduction of blood sugar – thereby making them very beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. Individuals suffering from a congested or septic throat can create a concoction of the leaves by boiling them in water and using it as a mouthwash for as long as the sore throat persists. The seeds of the plant can also be administered internally, via a powder or mashed into a paste with honey in order to kill any intestinal worms – thereby cleaning the stomach substantially.
The appropriate dosage of Butea superba will depend on a number of different factors such as the users age and overall health. While there is no significant data detailing the general appropriate dosage of a user, it is highly recommended that you consult your local physician about the same as well. No risks and side effects have so far been reported with normal levels of consumption of Butea Superba however, it is important to keep in mind the fact that natural products are not always safe and dosages could have an effect on your overall quality of life. Make sure you read any directions provided on the packaging beforehand.
Proponents of the theory humans are primarily responsible for global warming have said for two decades that warmer temperatures would cause significant problems for the people of Africa. Crops would fail, water would dry up, and the lack of stability, coupled with these problems, would cause significant climate-change-related wars.
For instance, in 2015, Newsweek alleged global warming has already caused significant crises in Africa.
“In violence-plagued northern Mali, a desiccated landscape of dust and mud huts where the average rainfall is a third less than it was nearly two decades ago, scholars recently blamed a climate change–induced drought for fueling conflict between Tuareg separatist rebels, who need water and grass for their cattle herds, and government-backed forces. In March, the National Academy of Sciences published a peer-reviewed study stating that ‘there is evidence that the 2007–2010 drought contributed to the conflict in Syria. It was the worst drought in the instrumental record, causing widespread crop failure and a mass migration of farming families to urban centers.’ Some studies suggest climate change will produce permanent refugees.”
These kinds of sky-is-falling analyses rely on short-term views of regional and global climate changes, and they often fail to consider the numerous benefits of warming and/or increased carbon-dioxide levels, as evidenced by a new study showing increased CO2 has “driven” greening in Africa.
According to a study by Martin Brandt et al., published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution in May, 36 percent of the continent of Africa became greener over the 20-year period from 1992 to 2011, while only 11 percent became “less green.” Interestingly, the researchers found the increased greening was “driven” by higher carbon-dioxide levels and precipitation, and the decreased greening was largely a result of humans cutting down vegetation.
“Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992–2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km2) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km2), mostly in humid zones,” wrote the authors in their study’s abstract. “Increases in woody cover were associated with low population growth, and were driven by increases in CO2 in the humid zones and by increases in precipitation in drylands, whereas decreases in woody cover were associated with high population growth.”
This study, if accurate, serves as further proof that increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is not nearly as dangerous as so many alarmists say. In fact, historically, more-significant problems are linked to climates becoming colder, not warmer. This isn’t surprising, because when temperatures are higher and there is more carbon dioxide present, plants tend to grow better, which means animals and humans have more food to eat.
That armies are mad up of men is something that has to end. Draft women into combat troops. Expose women to the same kind of dangers that men have faced throughout history. Hard labour for female convicts!
Men risk their lives in wars so women can enjoy societies where they can pursue feminist goals, such as punishing men for sexist language.
Nathaniel Bar-Jonah was a convicted child predator that was serving a 130-year prison sentence after being found guilty of repeatedly molesting, torturing and attempting to murder children. He was also suspected of killing a child and then disposing of the body through cannibalistic ways that involved his unsuspecting neighbors.
CHILDHOOD YEARS Nathaniel Bar-Jonah was born David Paul Brown on February 15, 1957, in Worcester, Massachusetts.
As early as age seven, Bar-Jonah demonstrated severe signs of depraved thinking and violence. In 1964, after receiving a Ouija board for his birthday, Bar-Jonah lured a five-year-old girl into his basement and tried to strangle her, but his mother intervened after hearing the child screaming.
In 1970, 13-year-old Bar-Jonah sexually assaulted a six-year-old boy after promising to take him sledding. A few years later he planned to murder two boys in a cemetery, but the boys became suspicious and got away.
At 17 years of age, Bar-Jonah pled guilty after being arrested for dressing as a policeman and beating and choking an eight-year-old boy who he ordered into his car. After the beating, the child recognized Brown who was working at a local McDonalds and he was arrested, charged and convicted. Bar-Jonah received a year of probation for the crime.
KIDNAPPING AND ATTEMPTED MURDER Three years later, Bar-Jonah dressed as a policeman again and kidnapped two boys, made them undress and then began strangling them.
One of the boys was able to escape and contact the police. Authorities arrested Brown and the other child was located, handcuffed inside his trunk. Bar-Jonah was charged with attempted murder and received a 20-year prison sentence.
SICK THOUGHTS While incarcerated Bar-Jonah shared some of his fantasies of murder, dissection, and cannibalism with his psychiatrist who made the decision in 1979 to commit Bar-Jonah to the Bridgewater State Hospital for Sexual Predators.
Bar-Jonah remained at the hospital until 1991, when Superior Court Judge Walter E. Steele decided that the state had failed to prove he was dangerous. Bar-Jonah left the institution with a promise from his family to the court that they would be moving to Montana.
MASSACHUSETTS SENDS THE PROBLEM TO MONTANA Bar-Jonah attacked another boy three weeks after his release and was arrested on assault charges, but managed to be released without bail. A deal was made that required that Bar-Jonah join his family in Montana. He also received two years probation. Bar-Jonah kept his word and left Massachusetts.
Once in Montana, Bar-Jonah met with his probation officer and disclosed some of his past crimes. A request was made to the Massachusetts probation office to send more records regarding Bar-Jonah’s history and psychiatric past, but no additional records were sent.
Bar-Jonah managed to stay away from police until 1999 when he was arrested near an elementary school in Great Falls, Montana, dressed as a policeman and carrying a stun gun and pepper spray. Authorities searched his home and found thousands of pictures of boys and a list of boy's names who were from Massachusetts and Great Falls. Police also uncovered encrypted writings, decoded by the FBI, that included statements such as 'little boy stew,' 'little boy pot pies' and 'lunch is served on the patio with roasted child.'
Authorities concluded that Bar-Jonah was responsible for the 1996 disappearance of 10-year-old Zachary Ramsay who vanished on his way to school. It was believed that he kidnapped and murdered the child then cut up his body for stews and hamburgers that he served to unsuspecting neighbors at a cookout.
In July 2000, Bar-Jonah was charged with Zachary Ramsay’s murder and for kidnapping and sexually assaulting three other boys who lived above him in an apartment complex.
The charges involving Ramsay were dropped after the boy's mother said she did not believe Bar-Jonah killed her son. For the other charges, Bar-Jonah was sentenced to 130 years in prison for sexually assaulting one boy and torturing another by suspending him from a kitchen ceiling.
In December 2004, the Montana Supreme Court turned down Bar-Jonah’s appeals and upheld the conviction and 130-year prison sentence.
On April 13, 2008, Nathaniel Bar-Jonah was found dead in his prison cell. It was decided that the death was a result of his poor health (he weighed over 300 pounds) and the cause of death was listed as myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Islamize Europe and get women out of politics. Feminism is the root if terrorism.
It looks like Reggie Bush may have cosigned Ray J’s take on Kim Kardashian’s vagina having a putrid odor. HipHollywood came across this image on Bush’s account posted 189 weeks ago, reading: “I know you’re the one because the smell of your vagina doesn’t make me gag.” In the caption, the NFL running back writes: “#LMAO #BecauseYouKnowItsTrue.”
Reggie and Kim dated for several years before calling it quits and marrying other people.
Earlier this week, an eight-year-old interview with Ray J leaked online featuring him also discussing Kim’s private regions and its alleged odor. “I went to the doctor and I asked the doctor, ‘Is it me?’ And he was like, ‘Nah.’ And I’m like, ‘Listen, check me first. OK, I’m good. What’s up with my girlfriend’s coochie? It’s ridiculous’.”
Kanye West has neither denied or substantiated any aroma rumors.
Restore freedom: Liberty Dependeth on the Silence of the Law. Through out most laws. Return responsibility to heads of families.
British police have said they believe they have evidence linking Britain’s last unmarried prime minister to alleged victims of pedophilia.
Sir Edward Heath, a Conservative, led the UK between 1970 and 1974. He died aged 89 in 2005.
Since 2015 Wiltshire Police has been investigating claims linking him to sexual abuse. This weekend in an interview with the Mail on Sunday, Wiltshire’s chief constable, Mike Veale, said he believed the allegations against Heath (pictured with Richard Nixon) were “120 per cent genuine”.
A report by Wiltshire Police, scheduled for publication later this year, will apparently highlight photographs of Heath driving a car as key evidence against him. The photograph conflicts with Heath’s supporters’ claims that Heath was driven everywhere by police protection officers and never took the wheel himself.
More than 30 alleged victims have apparently contacted Wiltshire Police with claims of abuse involving Heath said to have been carried out between the 1960s and 1990s. A source close to the investigation said that “strikingly similar” allegations made against Heath include the names used for the former politician, the type of abuse and the locations.
Officers have obtained copies of photographs showing Heath behind the wheel of a Rover 2000 car which he bought in the mid-1970s after leaving office. They were reported to have been doubtful about the allegations at first but apparently “now believe them”.
One alleged victim claims he was abused by Heath after being picked up while hitch-hiking.
The investigation into Heath involves a team of seven officers and eleven police staff. It has so far cost £700,000 ($875,000).
In a statement released last night Chief Constable Mike Veale said: “It is not the role of the police to judge the guilt or innocence of people in our criminal justice system. Our role is to objectively and proportionately go where the evidence takes us.”
The investigation is also considering claims that the abuse allegations against Heath were reported to the police years ago but covered up by the British Establishment.
The allegations against Heath have been dismissed by a former aide to another ex-prime minister, Harold Wilson, who urged the police to end their “witch-hunt”. Joe Haines, who was press secretary to Wilson from 1969 to 1976, said he was better placed than most to know if Heath was a “sexual deviant”.
Socrates, clearly recognized as a wise man, stated that women have no place in public life. And right he was.
Khmer Rouge terror in Cambodia
So, is it OK to sew kittens’ eyelids together to stop children going blind? All too often the arguments surrounding live-animal experimentation, aka vivisection, circle around the putative torments of genetically engineered rodents (which no one much cares about) and monstrous cruelties inflicted on our ape close-cousins (illegal here anyway). But the story that scientists at Cardiff University have been studying the way brains react to induced blindness by ‘modelling’ the condition in young cats has crystallised the arguments in a way that may end up being very helpful.
The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection says that raising newborn kittens in total darkness and sewing shut the eyes of others is not only cruel but unnecessary. Firstly they say it is possible to study the effects of lazy-eye, or Ambylopia, in human volunteers (not, presumably, involving eyelid stitching). Worse, they say, cat brains and cat vision are fundamentally different to ours and it is hard to see how anything useful can be gained by this research. These experiments have been done before, many years ago, and we still do not have a cure.
I have always believed animal experimentation is not only right but a moral necessity. Put simply, without the use of animals in the lab we would not have modern medicine. We would have no cancer drugs, no effective antibiotics, no proper analgesics. Many surgical procedures would be impossible. Of course medicine could advance on an ad hoc basis using only humans as guinea pigs but that would require us to live in a totally alien ethical (not to mention legal) world.
I have always decried the antics of the loonies, the people who put letter bombs and faeces through the front doors of scientists, the activists who make working at any lab involving animal experimentation an exercise akin to being a member of the RUC in 1970s Ulster. These people do their cause no good.
And one of the main arguments against animal-rights lunacy is the sheer hypocrisy. Last year, according to the Home Office, 3.8m ‘procedures’ were carried out on animals in Britain in the name of science and medicine. There is no doubt that although some pain and suffering was caused, most of these animal recruits lead better lives, and certainly better deaths, than the estimated billion or so chickens, bullocks, pigs and lambs slaughtered in the same period to provide us with food.
Any argument about animal welfare in the lab is specious in a nation which still allows battery poultry farming. And yet it is not quite so simple as that. Even carnivores can see, for instance, that (say) squirting makeup into the eyes of rabbits in the name of human vanity is wrong even if we are happy to throw said bunny in the pot with some onions and red wine. So what about injecting chemotherapy or AIDS drugs into the veins of the same rabbit to see what happens? Better than the cosmetic tests, for sure, but on a very emotional level something feels very different about messing around with an animal to make us (maybe, one day) feel better and simply killing it to satiate our meat-hunger (of course as far as the rabbit is concerned this is angels-on-pinhead stuff).
What would help is a bit more honesty. All too often scientists and doctors lapse into euphemism and obfuscation when describing procedures that must be unendurable in a small number of cases. They often talk about ‘discomfort’, when they mean ‘screaming agony’ for example (in fact too many doctors are prone to do this with human patients. If this is something that is taught in medical school, please can it be stopped, now).
Yesterday Cardiff University put out a press release defending the kitten business which failed to acknowledge or even mention the grisly nature of the procedure and certainly did not address the reality that as far as the animals were concerned this would have been hugely unpleasant. In a world where 1600 animals (the vast bulk being chickens) are slaughtered every second for food, most in conditions that do not bear thinking about, it does seem facile to be considering the ‘rights’ of 31 Welsh kittens stumbling around their pens in the dark.
Facile, perhaps but necessary too. The scientists are, generally, right about this; research like this is needed. But they need to be made to keep reminding us why it is right and to keep justifying procedures that, without the watchful eye of the BUAV (and, yes, the loonies as well) would perhaps become so routine that no one would give them a moment’s thought. Animal experimentation is nasty. That does not make it wrong, but those of us who defend it must be brave enough to admit the truth, in all its grisly detail.
You can always pep up your website with imagery on the killing and torture of me. Nobody cares. Cruelty towards men is accepted. But showing physical love of people below the age of 18 can earn a punishment much worse than that for torturing and killing a man. That's the world today. The result of feminism, the ideology by which ugly women want to protect their market value as sex objects by eliminating anything that undermines their hold on men.
“Clitoridectomy and female circumcision, practices often labeled as female genital mutilations, are not just controversial cultural rites performed in foreign countries…
“…medical historian reports that American physicians treated women and girls for masturbation by removing the clitoris from the mid-19th century through the mid-20th century. And physicians continue to perform female circumcision (removal of the clitoral hood) to enable women to reach orgasm, although the procedure is controversial and can result in lasting problems such as painful intercourse for some women…
“‘The medical view was to change the female body to treat a girl or woman’s ‘faulty’ sexual behavior, such as masturbation or difficulty having an orgasm, rather than questioning the narrowness of what counted as culturally appropriate behavior,’ said Rodriguez, who also is a lecturer in global health studies at Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. ‘This practice is still alive and well in the United States as part of the trend in female cosmetic genital surgery…’” (Marla Paul, “Clitoridectomy and Female Circumcision in America: Centuries-old Procedures Reflect Views of ‘Appropriate’ Female Sexuality,” December 1, 2014).
The issue of female genital mutilation, a practice encompassing a partial or complete removal of the clitoris, has been a tricky and contentious subject for many people across diverse religious, political, and ideological persuasions.
According to the World Health Organization, “An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM…In Africa, about three million girls are at risk for FGM annually…It is mostly carried out on girls sometime between infancy and age 15 years.”
Therefore, given these staggering statistics, the World Health Organization should monitor countries identified with the practice of female genital mutilation by educating their populace on the dangers to which infant girls and young women are inevitably subjected to and the need to minimize or eliminate them.
Then also Ghana News Agency (GNA), in 2013, reported an increase in cases of the practice in spite of a ban imposed on it. According to the GNA, a UNICEF multiple Indicator Cluster (MICS) puts “FGM at 3.8 per cent for women between 15 to 49 years and four per cent for the most recent survey of 2011” (See also Article 39 of the Constitution; and the so-called Maputo Protocol (2007). We should also remember that Ghana abolished the practice as far back as 1994, under the administration of Rawlings).
This report further mentioned the three northern regions (the Northern Region, the Upper East Region, the Upper West Region), the Brong Ahafo Region, and Zongo communities in certain urban centers of the country, Ghana, where the practice still goes on. (see Rogaia M. Abusharaf’s edited volume “Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives” for a much broader discussion of the subject matter across Africa).
Perhaps Adelaide Abankwah’s disgraceful case has not completely died yet. Adelaide, whose real name was Regina Norman Danson, from Biriwa in the Central Region of Ghana, used the female-genital-mutilation excuse to apply for political asylum in the US only to be found out, a case that unleashed a chain reaction of outright lies on the part of the asylee and embroiled Ghana in an international ignominy of sorts. How sad that Hillary Clinton and Julia Roberts publicly defended her. This author met in person with a Somali-American City College professor of African and African-American history who appeared on Gil Noble’s “Like It Is” to defend the fraud.
Finally, we should also want to make it clear that female genital mutilation was and still is practiced among whites, and in the white world at large, in the West (see Sarah Rodriguez’s book “Female Circumcision and Clitoridectomy in the United States: A History of a Medical Treatment.” Dr. Rodriguez teaches in the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, USA; Readers may also want to take a look at Isaac B. Brown’s book “On the Curability of Certain Forms of Insanity, Epilepsy, Catalepsy, and Hysteria in Females” for more information on clitoridectomy in 19-century Europe, Britain to be precise).
Well, this two-part article takes a general look at the practice as it is done across Africa.
NEED FOR CHANGE
The dilemma here is that proponents advance their arguments without evidently paying sufficient attention to what the practice actually is and to the enduring health hazards and psychological disequilibrium to which these female infants and young women are constantly exposed.
Indeed, some of these arguments are subtly constructed to further complicate the subject; for instance, the case is often made that male circumcision is no different from the female version, yet nowhere is it mentioned that the consequential long-lasting medical and psychological hazards resulting from the latter far outweigh those from the former (PalMD, 2008).
The following arguments therefore provide the requisite grounds for the active monitorial presence and educational intervention of the World Health Organization in countries known to tolerate the practice.
The first issue is the four major classification groups subsumed under female genital mutilation. These four groups are very important for the debate because they provide us with a vivid picture describing in some detail the various forms under which mutilation of the female genitalia is generally conducted.
In most of these cases the same excision instrument is used on several persons without the benefit of sanitization. In this regard, representatives from the World Health Organization should team up with the clergy, traditional rulers, lawyers, politicians, local scientists, and the like to collect and collate data in order to objectify the health hazards of the practice, as could be deduced from the following four broad categories defined by The Center for Reproductive Rights:
• Type I (also referred to as “clitoridectomy”): the excision of the prepuce with or without excision of the clitoris.
• Type II (also known as “excision”): the excision of the prepuce and clitoris together with partial or total excision of the labia minora.
• Type 111 (otherwise termed “infibulation”): the excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching or narrowing of the vaginal opening.
• Type IV: all other procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons.
The second pertinent controversy commonly encountered in the heated debates associated with female genital mutilation concerns the serious nature and permanency of the psychological perturbations many of these women inescapably inherit from the largely anesthesia-free surgeries, as well as from the multifariously severe medical consequences.
For the most part, these victims are surprisingly left to fend off these deleterious effects without the timely medical and legislative interventions required of the medical establishment and lawmakers, respectively, and the lack of political action or will on the part of politicians to reverse age-old cultural norms that have long provided the necessary ideological leverage for the practice.
In fact, supporters of the practice are quick to cite a plethora of reasons including custom and traditions, among others, as viable justifications for its incessant observation.
Here, for instance, the World Health Organization can wreck the cultural foundation of female genital mutilation by the sheer invocation of statistics exposing the cultural vacuity of the practice.
This suggestion is strongly supported by facts presented in the article “Female Genital Mutilation—The Facts,” a piece authored by Laura Reymond, Asha Mohamed, and Nancy Ali. They write:
• Intense pain and/or hemorrhage that can lead to shock during and after the procedure: A 1985 Sierra Leon study found that nearly 97 percent of the 269 women interviews experienced intense pain during and after FGM, and more than 13 percent went into shock.
• Hemorrhage can also lead to anemia.
• Wound infection, including tetanus: A survey in a clinic outside of Freetown (Sierra Leone) showed that of the 100 girls who had FGM, 1 died and 12 required hospitalization. Of the 12 hospitalized, 10 suffered from bleeding and 5 from tetanus. Tetanus is fatal in 50 to 60 percent of all cases.
• Damage to adjoining organs from the use of blunt instruments by unskilled operators: According to a 1993 nationwide study in the Sudan, this occurs approximately 0.3 percent of the time.
• Urine retention from swelling and/or blockage of the urethra.
Third, statistical validation from the medical profession establishing the causal relationship between female genital mutilation and the psychological health of victims is not extensive enough to merit considerable quotation here for purposes of serious analysis, since such data from the medical literature are shockingly lacking.
However, some evidence does seem to suggest that the causal relationship is there, but has not been thoroughly studied.
Therefore, there is the need for more research resources to be made available to those with the expertise to study the correlation between these two variables.
For this reason, the World Health Organization can provide much-needed technical assistance in this area. Despite this constraint, the Center for Reproductive Rights has this to say:
“There have been few studies on the psychological effects of FGM. Some women, however, have reported a number of problems, such as disturbances in sleep and mood.”
Furthermore, Reymond, et al., relate this causal relationship to their readers:
“Some researchers describe the psychological effects of FGM as ranging from anxiety to sever depression and psychosomatic illnesses. Many children exhibit behavioral changes after FGM, but problems may not be evident until the child reaches adulthood.”
Fourth, what is more, a constellation of problems of infertility, death, increased risks of maternal and child morbidity and mortality resulting from obstructed labor, painful or blocked menses, post-coital bleeding, tissue damage, urine retention, urinary infection, and difficult penetration during sexual intercourse have all been identified with FGM (Reymond at el.).
The practice also reeks of sexism and violation of girls’ and women’s rights (WHO). Also, in some of the areas where the practice is still deeply entrenched, for instance, in Somalia, the level of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, have increased because of the failure of traditional circumcisers to sterilize excision tools between surgeries.
The gravity of this claim demands the undivided attention of the World Health Organization and FGM-prone national governments in addressing this complex issue, especially as it relates to the curtailment of disease transmission. It is reported in the piece, “Somali-Somaliland—Excision—AIDS: Female Genital Mutilation: Cause of Increased HIV/AIDS in Somalia: Doctors,” that:
“Objects used for the excision are not sterilized and at the same could again be used to mutilate more women, who could already be HIV-positive.”
Additionally, Margaret Brady, a nurse practitioner, with a master’s in nursing and extensive experience in her field of expertise, concurs in her masterfully written expose, “Female Genital Mutilation: Complications and Risk of HIV Transmission”:
“It has been postulated that FGM may play a role in the transmission of HIV. One recent article which, was presented at the International Conference on AIDS 1998, was a study performed on 7350 young girls less than 16 years old in Dar-es-Salaam. In addition to other aspects of the research, it was revealed that 97% of the time, the same equipment could be used on 15-20 girls. The conclusion of the study was that the use of the same equipment facilitated HIV/AIDS/STD transmission.”
As a final point, the UNFPA also reports:
“A recent study that surveyed the status of FGM/C in 28 obstetric centers in six African countries—Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan—found that women who had undergone FGM/C were significantly more likely than others to have adverse obstetric outcomes such as Caesarean sections, post-partum hemorrhaging, prolonged labour, resuscitation of the infant and low birth weight and in-patient prenatal deaths. The inquiry also discovered that the risks seemed to increase among women who had undergone more extensive forms of FGM/C.”
Fifth, why does female genital mutilation continue to exist despite widespread backlash against it? Part of the answer relates to the ideological, cultural, and psychological manipulation of the citizenry.
The other part lies with the immense power vested with traditional practitioners to carry out the mutilations, in addition to the attractive financial incentive and coveted social prestige they stand to gain.
Accordingly, any fruitful attempt designed to ameliorate female genital mutilation’s harmful consequences or to extirpate the practice from the unfathomable recesses of man’s consciousness must ultimately come from a frank and profound familiarity with the realistic interplay of these socio-cultural and economic elements.
Therefore, a defensive maneuver calculated to enervate proponents’ viewpoints and to divest them of their flimsy ideological clothes must surely connect well with these noble objectives. This is also why the following reasons presented by the World Health Organization should be challenged:
• It endows a girl with cultural identity as a woman.
• It imparts on a girl a sense of pride, a coming of age and admission to the community.
• Not undergoing the operation brands a girl as a social outcast and reduces her prospects of finding a husband.
• It is part of a mother’s duties in raising a girl “properly” and preparing her for adulthood and marriage.
• It is believed to preserve a girl’s virginity, widely regarded as a prerequisite for marriage, and helps to preserve her morality and fidelity.
Not unsurprisingly, however, these misguided claims are made without any concrete allusion to scientific verification or approbation, even though they may possess some measure of anthropological verity.
Yet the harsh realities on the ground do not impute substantial health benefits to anthropological claims of the practice, let alone be used to justify it.
Thus, the preceding analyses can provide the World Health Organization with indubitable moral and political impetus, at least from the perspective of this essay, to monitor and educate countries associated with the practice and the masses populating them.
Moreover, the challenge now is to formulate a corrective framework within which the World Health Organization should operate in order to bring about the needed changes. This concern is expressed below.
There is a new solution coming up for ugly old women. Normally they would just become man-hating feminists. But soon they can have their brains transplanted into a sex doll, and feel beautiful again.
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